Saturday, April 14, 2007

The Vitalism of Naturopathy (edu-mer)(continued):

(to return to the main document, click here, http://naturocrit.blogspot.com)
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B.07.ii. Reference Tools (edu-mer):
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edu411.org's Richardson, S. states:
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"naturopathic medicine practitioners believe that everyone has a vital force, and that in order to be able to heal they need to strengthen this force and work with it";
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(click here,
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Elsevier's Dictionary of Geography: in English, Russian, French, Spanish and German [(2006); (Kotlyakov, V. (? ?), Komarova, A. (? ?)] states:
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[in "Vitalism"]
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"the doctrine [...] stressing the qualitative difference between living and non-living nature, as well as the fact that it is impossible to ascribe processes in living nature to physical and chemical laws of non-living nature [p.786]";
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(ISBN 0444510427)
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the Encyclopedia of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2004) [Navarra, T. (RN ?, BA ?)] states
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"acupuncture [...] ch'i energy comes from the vital-energy reserve we inherit from our parents. This type of inherited life energy is referred to as ancestral ch'i [p.002...] aromatherapy [...] 'it awakens and strengthens vital energies' [p.009...] the life force, or vibrations [p.015...] ch'i, the body's life force or energy [p.026...] dan tien [...] qi (or ch'i), the vital force, or vital energy [p.033...] energy, or life force, of living matter [...] subtle bioenergetics: qi (ch'i), or life force, and prana [p.038...] qi (ch'i; life force or energy) [p.045...] homeopathy [...] the body's vital energy [p.056...] a remedy's 'energy imprint', 'essence', or 'memory' of symptoms that calls forth the body's 'vital forces' [p.057...] qi (or ch'i), the vital force or basic life energy [p.069...] kapha: one of the doshas [...] the moon force [...one of the] basic life forces [...] ki: the Japanese equivalent of qi or ch'i [...] life energy or psychic energy (mana /prana) [p.071...] the universal life force energy [...] the life force energy [...] vital energy points carry the body's ch'i, or life force [p.083...] energy (also known as the life force [...] life force, or energy [...] your own inner life force [p.084...] that person's own life force has an innate intelligence [p.085...] life force or qi (also ch'i) [p.087...] vital force, or energy [p.107...] oja [...] the ultimate vital force or energy [p.118...] prana [...] breath, life force, or vital energy [p.127...] life energy or prana [p.149...] qi (ch'i). The Chinese word [...] for 'vital energy' or 'life force' [p.133...] vital force: life, or primal, energy [...] vitalism: another term for the theory of 'vital energy' [p.157...] this life force. Biofield [p.194...] naturopathy [...] its practitioners treat underlying causes of illness by facilitating the body's response to disease through its 'life force' [p.197...] vital energy (qi) [p.216...] qi [...] vital energy [p.227...] vital energy (qi) [p.228...] life force, or vital energy [p.245]";
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(ISBN 0816049971)
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the Encyclopedia of Medicine {'a partnership between LookSmart and Gale. Gale, a business of the Thomson Corporation'} states:
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[in "Naturopathic Medicine"]
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a.
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"the philosophy that underlies naturopathic medicine is called vitalism";
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(click here,
(archived here,
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b.
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"acupuncture. The use of fine needles to stimulate certain points along the body's meridians, or energy pathways, in order to improve the body's flow of vital energy. Although acupuncture originated within Chinese medicine, it is now often taught to naturopaths in the United States as part of their professional training";
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(click here,
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c.
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"vitalism. The philosophy of life that underlies naturopathic medicine. Vitalism defines life as an autonomous force which cannot be explained in biological or chamical[sp.] terms";
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(click here,
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the Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health states:
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[in “Homeopathy”]
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“key terms […] vital forceinnate wisdom and energy of the body […] practitioners believe that the electromagnetic energy of the original substance is retained in the dilution, but toxic side effects of the remedy are not. It is this electrochemical 'message' that stimulates the body to heal itself”;
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(click here,
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the Encyclopedic Sourcebook of New Age Religions(2004) states:
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“theosophical division […] Sanskrit terms […] prana […] exoteric meaning […] life, or vital principle [p.449…] the Damanhur School of Spiritual Healers […] the transformation induced through individual and group experiences promotes self-healing by opening up one’s channels to cosmic healing energies (prana) [p.661…] the healer is able to acquire knowledge, extend the use of energies, and become a channel for prana energy […] students learn to consider and use prana as a basic element of their own personal inner growth [p.662]”;
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(ISBN 1591020409)
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Eric Weisstein’s World of Chemistry states:
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[in “Vitalism Theory”]
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“the belief [!] dating to around 1600 that matter was divided into two classes based on behavior with respect to heat: organic and inorganic […the latter] could be melted but could always be recovered by removing the heat source […the former] changed form upon heating and could not be recovered by removing the heat source. The proposed explanation for the difference between organic and inorganic compounds was the vitalism theory, which stated that inorganic materials did not contain the ‘vital forceof life and lasted until the mid-nineteenth century”;
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(click here,
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the Free On Line Dictionary Of Philosophy states:
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[in “Vitalism”]
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vitalism was a reaction against the currents of materialism and mechanistic determinism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The vitalists posited that human beings are not purely physical but contain some kind of spiritual component or ‘vital essence.’ In practice, since the vitalists could not deny the progress of materialist science, they advocated a kind of dualism of matter and life”;
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(click here,
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the German Dictionary of Philosophical Terms (vol.2, 1998) {Herdina, P. (? ?), Waibl, E. (? ?)} states:
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"élan vital [...] lebenskraft [...] life force, vital force [p.117...] energy (force) [...] life force, elan vital [p.122...] life force - lebenskraft [...] elan vital [...] vital force, elan vital; prana [p.219...] prana - life force [p.301...] vital force - lebenskraft [...] life force, elan vital [...] vital impetus - vital force [p.424]";

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(ISBN 0415178894)
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GradProfiles.com states:
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[in "University of Bridgeport College of Naturopathic Medicine Bridgeport, Connecticut 06601" (2002)]
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"programs of study and degree requirements. The University Of Bridgeport College Of Naturopathic Medicine offers an intensive program of professional education leading to the Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (N.D.) degree. Naturopathic medicine is grounded in the vitalistic tradition of medicine";
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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HealthDictionary.info states:
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[in "Natural"]
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"natural medicine. A term used to describe the philosophy of the particular alternative systems that emphasize vis medicatrix naturae, 'the healing power of nature.' The therapeutic emphasis is on supporting or stimulating the organism’s self-healing processes, rather than treating the symptoms or the disease. The 'healing power' of nature is found in the innate homeostatic and healing systems of the body and mind of the living organism, not in the natural medicinal substance or therapy. This is also sometimes call 'vitalistic medicine.';
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(click here,
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holisticonline.com states:
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[in “How Do Homeopathic Remedies Work?”]
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“many of the homeopathic remedies are so diluted that according to the known laws of physics and chemistry, they couldn't possibly have any effect. Once you get beyond a certain point-24x or 12c -there is probably not even one single molecule of the original active substance remaining. This fact is often pointed to by critics of homeopathy as they dismiss the effect of homeopathy as merely due to placebo effect. And yet, according to homeopathic doctrine and experience, the more diluted the solution, the more potent it is […] homeopathic remedies are believed to work in the spiritual plane as opposed to the physical plane as we are used to think and measure. Hahnemann believed that dilution and succussion released a spirit- like power that worked on the spiritual level of the vital force in humans. We are familiar with the formerly invisible, immeasurable, unknowable energy forms, such as electromagnetic radiation and subatomic particles [!]. Magnets exerted their force long before science could explain the mechanism. Physicists are still trying to explain gravity and the nature of matter, still discovering phenomena such as the ‘strong force’ and the ’weak force’ [!]. Homeopathy is an energy medicine, as are acupuncture and therapeutic touch. Homeopaths believe that although the physical molecules of the original substance may be gone, dilution and succussion leaves something behind -- an imprint of its essence, or its energy pattern -- that gives it a kind of healing charge […] homeopaths believe that it is the energy or ‘vibrational pattern’ of the remedy, rather than the chemical content, that stimulates the healing by activating what Hahnemann called the vital force. Vital force is the healing power or energy that exists within us all. It is called by the name chi by Chinese and prana by Indian ayurveda. The vital force fuels the mind, body, emotions and mind. It keeps us healthy and balanced. When the balance of the vital force is disturbed by factors such as stress, pollution, improper diet and lack of exercise, it becomes weakened resulting in the person getting sick. (For a description of the Chinese philosophy of the vital force, please refer to the section on acupuncture. For the ayurvedic concept of the vital force, please read the corresponding section of the ayurveda.)”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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[in "Hatha Yoga"]
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"ha means 'sun' and tha means 'moon.' Thus, hatha yoga refers to positive (sun) and to negative (moon) currents in the system. These currents are to be balanced and mastered so that vital force, prana, can be regulated, the mind cleared and superconscious states experienced";
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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holistic-online.com states:
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[in “Chiropractic – Key Principles”]
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“[the] vitalistic principle holds that the human organism can keep itself healthy if there are no barriers to full expression of all its vital functions. The body has the innate ability to heal itself from within. The life force (or innate intelligence) emanates throughout the body through the nervous system. The nervous system, in a sense, is the conduit of the life force. By manipulating the spine and other joints through which the life force passes (the spine itself is a series of joints}, chiropractors see themselves as removing barriers or obstacles to the full expression of this life force, thereby allowing the functioning necessary for health. The vitalistic model distinguishes chiropractic from the conventional medical model. Unlike in allopathy[!] and western medicine, chiropractors do not directly treat disease. They facilitate the body's own restorative powers. The vital force cannot be measured scientifically. But it is something chiropractors believe in. Like chi in Chinese medicine, prana in ayurveda, and the vital force in homeopathy, vital force is a major premise of chiropractic”;
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(click here,
(archived here,

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Homeopathy For All [http://www.homoeopathyforall.com] states:
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[in "Professional Terms"]
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"centesimal: one of three potency scales used in homeopathic pharmacy [...] the higher the potency, the stronger the stimulation of the vital force [...] dynamis: life energy, vital force [...] geginwirking (counter action): Hahnemann divides the symptoms we see into two different types: those which result from the first encounter between the vital force and the external agent, and the ones which are a result of the vital force's reaction to the symptoms of that primary encounter-counter action [...] lebenskraft: life force or life power [...] mesmerism: healing force by which a well-intentioned man exerts his strong will over a patient with or without touching him, or even at some distance, in such a way that the vital force of the healthy mesmerizer gifted with this power dynamically flows into the patient [...] primary effects: every power that acts on life, every medicine, alters the vital force more or less and brings about in human health certain modifications of greater or lesser duration. Although it is a product of both the medicinal and the vital force, this primary action nevertheless belongs more to the domain of the former [...] secondary effects: our vital force strives to oppose its energy to this influence [...] vigor vitae: life force. Vis medicatrix naturae: the healing power of nature. Vital Force: the energy that maintains life in the individual. See aphorisms 9-12 of the Organon";
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the Honolulu Star Bulletin states:

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[in "Servant of Humanity"{per Arcayna, N.}]
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"according to Elizabeth Chen Christenson, a medical doctor and associate clinical professor at the Department of Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the University of Hawaii's John Burns School of Medicine [...] 'Dr. Sha's work has elevated medicine to include the spiritual aspect of human experience' [...] 'medicine has always been afraid to venture into this area. People have always associated spiritual work as religion' [...] skeptics might have their doubts, but in the naturopathic fields of healing, there are explanations [...] 'we are talking about life force. There are various names to express the concept of the energy that flows and gives life, such as qi, prana, pneuma, the essence, spirit and soul. It does not matter what you call it, the idea is that you are going beyond just working the body [...] to something that actually gives life";

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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,

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the Hutchinson Encyclopedia states:
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[in “Vitalism”]
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“philosophical doctrine that life processes are not entirely explicable, or bound, by scientific laws”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the Imperial Dictionary of the English Language (1883) states:
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[in "Vitalism"]
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"vitalism: in biol., the doctrine that ascribes all the functions of an organism to a vital principle distinct from chemical and other physical forces [p.574]";
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(no ISBN, too old; Blackie & Son)
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(archived here,
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India: A Site to Explore the Many Colors of India:
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[in “Naturopathy”]
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“naturopathy: a vital curative force within the body […] this practice is based on recognition that the body possesses an inherent ability to heal thyself. Naturopathy or the healing power of nature (vis medicatrix naturae), underpins nearly all the therapeutic techniques in alternative medicine. Acupuncture, manipulation and homeopathy. They all depend on body’s ability to heal itself if pushed, needled or coaxed in the right direction. Although naturopathy is a relatively recent word, its therapeutic approach and principles represent the essence of a broad holistic attitude to health and disease. It challenges reductionism, which represents the essential philosophical basis and attitude of modern scientific medicine […] naturopathic physicians vary in their approach, style and choices of therapies -- one practitioner might rely heavily on herbal medicine while another may emphasize homeopathy - but they all base their practices on the same underlying principles of healing. These include a belief in the healing power of nature, the importance of treating the whole person, the goal of treating the cause of an illness rather than merely the symptoms, the idea that the prevention of illness is the ultimate cure and the priority of doing no harm to the patient (such as avoiding treatments that cause side effects) […] naturopaths believe that orthodox treatment only drives the symptoms underground ready to return another time, because it does not remove their cause […] a naturopath merely finds the most appropriate way to help the body to stimulate itself into using its inherent powers to heal itself […] naturopathy- a self healing system […] naturopathy is the creation of conditions which enable the body to heal itself as far as it is capable of so doing”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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the Infoplease Dictionary / Dictionary.com / Random House Unabridged Dictionary 2006 states:
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[in “Vitalism”]
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“the doctrine that phenomena are only partly controlled by mechanical forces, and are in some measure self-determining […] biol .a doctrine that ascribes the functions of a living organism to a vital principle distinct from chemical and physical forces”;
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(click here,
(also click here,
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Inspiration Magazine states:
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[in “The History of Medicine”{per Chun, L.R. (DO ?)}; May-June 2003]
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“’vitalists’ believed […] that there is an innate, universal intelligence, a spiritual vital force that pervades man […] medical disciplines encouraging vitalistic thought -osteopathy, homeopathy, naturopathy, and chiropractic”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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the Ism Book states:
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[in "Vitalism"]
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"Vitalism (from Latin vitalis: relating to life or living things) (metaphysics) The belief (opposed to materialism and determinism) that human beings are not merely physical but contain a spiritual component or vital essence. In practice, vitalism involved a dualism of matter and life";
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(click here,
[defunct](for a youtube slideshow of this, click here,
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the International Journal of Naturopathic Medicine states:
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[in "Building Evidence for Naturopathic Medicine Are We Chasing Fool's Gold?" (2015)]
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"[per ND Leung] the concepts of the physiological terrain, the vital force, the individual's constitution, a person's chi (qi) are all relevant to the basis of naturopathic practice";
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(click here,
(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
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iVillage.co.uk states:
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[in “iHealth: Restoring Health With Naturopathy”]
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“naturopathy is based on the belief that the body has the ability to heal itself and that a healthy lifestyle is everything. Anne Woodham explains how it works: ‘the body's natural state - the vital force - seeks to achieve a state of equilibrium (homeostasis) in which all systems function in harmony”;
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(click here,
(archived here,

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Life Positive Magazine states:
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[in “Naturopathy”]
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“naturopathy, also called nature care […] nature care is primarily based on three principles: that the body possesses the power to heal itself through its internal vitality and intelligence; that disease is a manifestation of vital force applying itself to the removal of obstructions to the normal functioning of organs and tissues; that naturopathic cures should take a holistic approach to health. By integrating these principles, naturopathy seeks to stimulate the body's inherent power to regain health with the help of the five natural elements—earth, air, fire, ether and water. Similar to the 'five elements' theory or the Panchabhuta theory of ayurveda, naturopathy also works upon the ideal integration of these elements within the individual”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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the Malaysian Star states:
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[in “Commanding Your Qi” (2007)]
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“[by way of Ishak, A.F.(? ?)] the energy we are referring to is qi, or life force (also called prana, ki, tenaga hayat, latifa, etc), the energy that initiates and sustains life, and is therefore vital for health and healing. It is different from the energy required for physical work which we acquire from food (measured in calories). Qi has not yet been understood by science, and therefore has no scientific calibration! Imagine qi as a brilliant white light. Thus the energy centers will appear to you like extremely bright light globes”;
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(click here,
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the Manila Times states:
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[in “Can Acupuncture Treat Mental Disorders?” (2006)]
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“[by way of Mallari, P.G.S. (? ?)] acupuncture and most other oriental healing modalities uphold the concept of qi or chi, the universal life force that permeates all living things. Qi was also known as ki in Japanese, pneuma in Greek and prana in Sanskrit. According to the principle, qi flows along the meridians that run across the human body. A blockage on any of these channels indicates an onset of a disease. Acupuncture operates on the premise that by inserting fine needles on certain points of the body, the blockages can be removed and any imbalance in the flow of qi can be corrected”;
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(click here,
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the Merck Manual of Medical Information: Second Home Edition(2004) states:

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"ayurveda [...] is based on the theory [nonscientific 'theory!'] that illness results from the imbalance of the body's life force, or prana. The balancing of this life force is determined by the equilibrium of the three bodily qualities, called doshas: vata, pitta, and kapha [p.1542]";

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(ISBN 0743477340)

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the Merck Manuals Online Medical Library – Home Edition For Patients and Caregivers states:
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[in “Types of Alternative Medicine”]
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“traditional Chinese medicine: originating in China thousands of years ago, this system is based on the theory that illness results from the improper flow of the life force (qi) through the body. Qi is restored by balancing the opposing forces of yin and yang, which manifest in the body as heat and cold, external and internal, and deficiency and excess […] acupuncture involves stimulating specific points on the body, usually by inserting very fine needles into the skin and underlying tissues […] stimulating these specific points is believed to unblock the flow of qi along energy pathways (meridians) and thus restore balance between yin and yang [...] ayurveda is the traditional medical system of India, originating more than 4,000 years ago. It is based on the theory that illness results from the imbalance of the body's life force, or prana. The balancing of this life force is determined by the equilibrium of the three bodily qualities, called doshas: vata, pitta, and kapha […] energy therapies focus on the energy fields thought to exist in and around the body (biofields). They also encompass the use of external energy sources (electromagnetic fields) to influence health and healing. All energy therapies are based on a core belief in the existence of a universal life force or subtle energy that resides in and around the body”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary states:
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[in “Vitalism”]
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“a doctrine that the functions of a living organism are due to a vital principle distinct from physicochemical forces […] a doctrine that the processes of life are not explicable by the laws of physics and chemistry alone and that life is in some part self-determining”;
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(click here,
(archived here,
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(for the archive.org history of this page, click here,
(for a digg.com social bookmark of this {live page}, click here {typo in title},
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[in “Life Force”]
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“main entry: life force. Function: noun: elan vital”;
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(click here,
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[in “Elan Vital”]
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“the vital force or impulse of life; especially : a creative principle held by Bergson to be immanent in all organisms and responsible for evolution”;
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(click here,
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[in "Vis Medicatrix Naturae"]
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"Latin: the healing power of nature";
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(click here,
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